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Islam: God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

Table of Contents

 

I. Introduction: Basic Information

 

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction

 

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan 

 

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity 

 

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran

 

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth

 

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise


7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?  

 

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings  

 

9. Spirit, Soul, Mind, Self, and Happiness, from an Islamic Perspective

 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Quran  

 

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure

 

11. Islamic Proclamation of Faith

 

12. Performing Islamic Prayers

 

13. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty

 

14. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims

 

15. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar

 

16. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran 

 

17. Angels

 

18. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran  

 

19. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

 

20. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran

 

21. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran  

 

22. Muhammed in the Holy Quran

 

23. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj

 

24. The Last Day, The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

 

25. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

 

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds

 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

 

2. The La (No) Commands (January 2012)

 

3. The Imperative Commands 

 

***

 

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

 

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

 

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

 

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

 

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

 

Links to Islamic topics 2006

 

Links to Islamic topics 2005

 

Links to Islamic topics 2004

 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

 

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

Islam:

 

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

 

An Introduction to Islamic Law (Shari'a)

 

Part I:

 

Commands of Prohibition and Admonition

  

 in the Holy Quran

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

30th of Mu'harram, 1433 - 25th of December, 2011

 

***

 

 

:

 

 

 

1433 - 2011

 

***

 

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

 

Introduction

 

 

Islamic Shari'a (Islamic Law) represents a major component of God's Message of Guidance to humanity, as revealed through His Books and taught by His Messengers, for thousands of years.

 

In fact, the entire religion of Islam is God's Shari'a or body of laws, which are intended to guide humans in how to live happily on Earth and be also rewarded with God's content in the Hereafter. Thus, those who look for understanding Shari'a can find it contained in the Islamic teachings, in the Holy Quran and the Sunna.

 

The Islamic Shari'a is an independent discipline in Islamic universities, in which students study its various aspects in variety of courses, including principles of Shari'a and its rules.

 

There is no claim here of introducing the Shari'a to readers, as an academic discipline. Rather, the main focus is on presenting a survey of the Shari'a principles and rules, as stated in the verses of the Holy Quran. Those who are interested in further discussions, rulings, and analyses can go to the works of Muslim scholars from the various schools of thought. 

 

This is a draft version of Part I of the sixth book about Islam, by this author. It aims at the clarification of the meaning of Shari'a and to introduce some of the main categories of its principles and rules, such as those found in the direct commands of prohibition and admonition (Ta'hreem and Nahy).

 

The seventh book is a continuation of the sixth book, but it contains Gods Commands of Justice and Righteousness, which are expressed in the imperative mood (verb form), and used as commands about human behaviors in various aspects of life. It has not been completed yet. [1]

 

While this author consulted with several translations of the Holy Quran available on www.tanzil.net, particularly that of the Sahih International, he is solely responsible for the translation of the meanings of the researched verses, in this and other books.

 

Verses Mentioning the Word "Shari'a"

 

The following are three verses of the Holy Quran, in which the word "Shari'a," another variant of it "Shir'a" and its root verb "Shara'a" are mentioned. The three verses explain the meaning of these words.

 

ٰ ٰ ٰ ۖ ۚ ۚ ﴿ 42: 13﴾.

 

ۖ ۖ ۚ ۚ ٰ ۖ ۚ ﴿ 5: 48.

 

ٰ ﴿ 45: 18

 

(O Mu'hammed) He has ordained for you of religion what He enjoined upon Noo'h (Noah) and that which We have revealed to you, and what We enjoined upon Ibrahim, and Moussa, and 'Eissa (Abraham, Moses and Jesus) - to establish the religion and not be divided therein. Difficult for those who associate other (gods) with Allah is that to which you invite them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever turns back (to Him) (Al-Shoora, 42: 13).

 

(O Mu'hammed) And We have descended the Book (the Holy Quran) to you, with truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and dominant over it. So judge between them by what Allah has descended and do not follow their desires away from what has come to you of the truth. To each of you (Muslims and People of the Scripture), We prescribed a law and a method (of following it). Had Allah willed, He would have made you one (religious) nation, but (He has willed) to test you in what He has given you. So race to (compete in doing) good. To Allah is your return, all together, and He will inform you (of the truth about) what you were in disagreement about (Al-Maeda, 5: 48).

 

Then We put you, (O Muhammad), on a path of the matter (religion), follow it and do not follow the desires of those who do not know (Al-Jathiya, 45: 18).

 

Meanings of the Word Shari'ah

 

In interpreting Verse 42 of Soorat Al-Shoora, Chapter 13 of the Holy Quran, Al-Tabari (who died in 310 Hijriya), narrated from the companion Qutada, may Allah be pleased with both of them, that the interpretation of Shari'a is the body of rules, specifying what is allowed and what is prohibited ('halal and 'haram).

 

Al-Qurtubi (who died in 671 Hijriya), may Allah be pleased with him, elaborated on the meaning of Shari'a, saying that it is what Allah enjoined His five main Messengers, which is basically establishing His religion among people on Earth, by following His commands which allow them to do certain things and avoid doing others. The goal is straightening up their life on Earth as individuals, groups, and nations. [2]

 

The five main Messengers of God, also referred to as those with Power, are Noo'h, Ibraheem, Moosa, 'Eisa, and Mu'hammed (Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Mu'hammed), peace and blessings of God be upon all of them. They were commanded to teach people how to worship Allah, obey Him, believe in His Messengers, His Books, and the Day of Reckoning.

 

The Arabic root verb of the word "Shari'a," is "shara'a," which means to clarify and to show the way. It also means to make rules or laws. A derivative of the verb Shara'a is "shari'u which is the straight road or street. So, Shari'a is the straight path, which has been clarified by Allah to guide humanity from the darkness of ignorance and misery to His light of happiness in this life and in the hereafter.

 

The core meaning of Shari'a, then, is that the term refers to the body of God's commands of various forms (prohibitions, don't do, do, no, and imperative form commands), which prescribe how we can live happily on Earth and be rewarded with everlasting life in Paradise, in the hereafter.

 

Some of these commands, for example, teach about how to worship Allah, as the only and One God, by performing prayers, giving Zakat (charitable assistance to the needy), fasting during Ramadhan, and making the pilgrimage (Haj).

 

Other commands tell us how to be close to God through good deeds, telling the truth, fulfilling promises, honesty, and being kind to people generally and to parents and relatives, in particular.

 

Shari'a commands also specify behaviors that should be avoided, such as rejection of God's truth, murder, usury,  adultery, doing harm to self and to people, unnecessary killing of animals, lying, cheating, backbiting, belittling of people, or humiliating them. 

 

 

Alloweds, Prohibitions, & In-Betweens in Islam

 

In a famous Hadith, Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh), said that (from God's teachings to us, we know that) "Allowed behaviors ('halal) are clear and prohibitions ('haram) are clear, but there are unclear things in-between, many people do not know about them, avoid them."

 

- -

 

- 29 -

52  

 

So, what are these allowed behaviors (Halal), prohibited behaviors (Haram), and in-between unclear behaviors (Mushbihat, or Mushbahat)?

 

Alloweds ('Halal)

 

Out of His love for His human creations, Allah, praise to Him, allowed everything for Adam and Eve in Paradise, except eating from a certain tree. There was only one prohibition, the violation of which led to their exit from Paradise, as a punishment.

 

But Allah, praise to Him, never abandoned human beings, and out of His love to them, He told them, through His Messengers, to do certain behaviors and avoid others, for their own good and for their benefit.

 

For example, He stated, in the Holy Quran, that He has created the Jin and the humans for the sole purpose of worshipping Him (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 56 ).

 

 ( 51: 56).

 

  ( 51: 57).

 

"And I did not create the jin and humans except to worship Me  (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 56 ).

I do not want from them any provision, nor do I want them to feed Me  (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 57 ).

 

When we analyze worshipping Allah on the three levels of Islam, Iman, and Ihsan, we find that all what we do is bringing benefits back to ourselves as individuals, families, communities, and nations.

 

So, we worship Allah by observing His commands concerning what is allowed ('Halal) and what is prohibited ('Haram), as well as being careful when addressing issues in-between.

 

What are the allowed behaviors ('Halal)?

 

Allah has allowed us to do everything that makes us happy intellectually and physically as long as we do that in moderation and avoid the harmful behaviors He has prohibited.

 

So, allowed behaviors or things ('Halal) are the rule in Islam, while prohibitions ('Haram) are the exception, as stated in the following verses of the Holy Quran.

  

 ( 7: 157 ).

 

ۖ ۗ ( 5: 96).

 

ۚ ﴿ 7: 31.

 

ۚ ۗ ٰ ﴿ 7: 32.

 

(The Messenger of God) makes the good things (or behaviors) allowed for them (the believers) and prohibits for them the (hidden) harmful (ones) (Al-A'araf, 7: 157).

 

Allowed to you is game from the sea and its food as provision for you and the travelers, but forbidden to you is game from the land during the pilgrimage. And avoid wrath of God, to whom you will be gathered (Al-Maeda, 5: 96).

 

O children of Adam, take your adornment at every masjid (mosque), and eat and drink, but do not be excessive. He (Allah) does not like those who are excessive (Al-A'araf, 7: 31).

 

Say, "Who has forbidden the adornment of Allah and the good things of provision, which He has produced for His worshippers ?"

 

Say, "These are for those who have believed during the worldly life (but) exclusively for them on the Day of Resurrection." Thus We detail (clarify) the verses for a people who know (Al-A'araf, 7: 32).

 

I. Prohibitions ('Haram)

 

The Arabic root verb /'harrama/, to prohibit, and some of its derivatives were mentioned in the Holy Quran 53 times in 47 verses. However, there are 26 prohibitions, in nine categories, included in these verses, as 'Haram.

 

1. Meat

 

There are eleven prohibited kinds of meat, as mentioned in the following two verses of Surat Al-Maeda.

 

 

ۚ ٰ ( 5: 3).

 

ۗ  ﴿ 5: 96. 

 

Prohibited ('hurrimat) to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and (those animals) killed by strangling and by a violent blow and by a (head-long) fall and by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you (are able to) slaughter (before its death), and those which are sacrificed on (stone) altars (Al-Maeda, 5: 3).

 

And forbidden ('hurrima) to you is game from the land as long as you are in the state of ihram (during pilgrimage) (Al-Maeda, 5: 96).

 

2. Great Sins and Wrongdoings

 

There are six prohibited kinds of great sins and wrongdoings, as mentioned in the following two verses of Surat Al-A'araf.

 

﴿ 7: 33.

 

( 7: 157).

 

Say, "My Lord has only prohibited ('harrama) great sins (excessive acts of disobedience to God) - what is apparent of them and what is concealed, and sin, and transgression without a (legal) right, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down authority, and that you say about Allah that which you do not know" (Al-A'araf, 7: 33).

 

And (the Messenger of God) prohibits (yu'harrimu) for them the (hidden) harmful (things or behaviors) (Al-A'araf, 7: 157).

 

3. Forcing People out of their Homeland

 

ٰ ( 2: 85).

 

And you evict a party of your people from their homes, collaborating against them in sin and aggression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their eviction is forbidden (mu'harramun) to you (Al-Baqara, 2: 85).

 

4. Usury (Riba)

 

ۚ  ( 2: 275).

 

Allah has allowed selling (and buying) and has forbidden ('harrama) usury (riba). (Al-Baqara, 2: 275).

 

Verse 3: 130 of the Holy Quran defines usury (riba) as compound interests on a loan that exceed doubling of the loan principal. It states: [3]

"O you who have believed, do not consume usury, doubled and compounded, and avoid the wrath of Allah so you may prosper"
(Al-'Imran, 3: 130).

ۖ ( 3: 130).

 

5. Killing People Without a Right, Killing Children Out of Poverty, and Mistreatment of Parents

 

 

ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۚ ٰ ( 6: 151).

 

ٰ ۖ  ( 6: 152).

 

Say, "Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited ('harrama) to you: That you do not associate anything with Him, and to (give) parents good treatment, and not to kill your children out of poverty; We will provide for you and them. And do not approach great sins - what is apparent of them and what is concealed. And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden ('harrama) except by a (legal) right. That is what He has instructed you that you may reason"  (Al-Ana'am, 151).

 

And do not approach the orphan's property except in a way that is best until he reaches maturity  (Al-Ana'am, 152).

 

6. Sexual Activity Outside Marriage

 

  ۚ ٰ ( 24: 3).

 

A male fornicator involves (himself) with a female fornicator or a polytheist, and a female fornicator is involved only with a male fornicator or a polytheist, and that has been made prohibited ('hurrima) to the believers (Al-Nour, 24: 3).

 

7. Makkah City, the Location of Al-Ka'aba, the 'Haram House of God

 

ٰ  ( 27: 91).

 

"" " ." .

 

[Say, O Muhammad], "I have only been commanded to worship the Lord of this City (Makkah), who made it prohibited ('harramaha) (made it a sacred sanctuary) (Al-Naml, 27: 91).

 

The Prophet, pbbuh, explained the meaning of Makkah as 'Haram, saying that it is a city in which it is prohibited to shed human blood (fighting), oppress anybody, uproot its thorny plants, or hunt its game (The Hadith was mentioned by Ibn Katheer and the meaning was also mentioned by Al-Seyouti, Al-Tabari, and Al-Qurtubi).

 

8. Fighting During the 'Haram Months

  

 ( 2: 194).

 

The prohibited ('haramu) month for the prohibited month,- and so for all things prohibited,- there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, then transgress likewise against him (Al-Baqara, 2: 194).

 

Before Islam, Arabs observed a peaceful period of time, spanning the three consecutive lunar months of Dhul Qa'ada, Dhul Hijja, and Mu'harram, as well as the separate month of Rajab. During these four 'Haram months, fighting was prohibited ('Haram), as mentioned by Ibn Katheer in his interpretation of Verse 5: 2, and Verse 5: 96. This tradition of peace time was also upheld by Islam.

 

In the sixth year after Hijra (immigration to Medina), the Prophet, pbbuh, left to Makkah to perform 'Umra, a short pilgrimage, during the 'Haram (prohibited) month of Dhul Qa'ada. However, the non-believers denied him entry to the Holy City, which saddened him because he could not fight them to enter by force during the prohibited month.

 

He returned the following year, during the same month of Dhul Qa'ada and performed his 'Umra, together with many Muslims, after winning an arbitration or judgment against the non-believers of Makkah.

 

After this incident, Verse 194 of Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2 of the Holy Quran), was revealed to be a rule about fighting during the prohibited months. It stated that the prohibited months should be upheld by the believers as long as the non-believers are upholding them. However, if they transgress during these months, then believers have the right to counter their acts.

 

10. Lotting

 

It is prohibited for believers to seek divination methods in making decisions about their affairs. Rather, they should make decisions after gathering information, thinking, and reasoning.

 

( ) ... ۚ ٰ ( 5: 3).

 

And ('hurrimat, prohibited to you is) ... that you seek decision through divining arrows (Al-Maeda, 5: 3).

 

 

Commands of "Do" and "Don't Do" in the Holy Quran

 

 

In the first section of this article, I pointed to 26 major commands in which Allah, praise to Him, specified behaviors or things that believers should not do, using the Arabic root verb 'harrama, to prohibit, and its derivatives. These commands addressed issues related to food, sins, transgression, taking partners with God, falsifying about God, forcing people out of their homeland, usury, mistreatment of parents, killing of children and innocent people, fornication, sanctity of Makkah, sanctity of the four 'Haram months, and lotting.

 

This second section involves Commands of "Don't Do" (Nahy) in the Holy Quran.

 

II. Commands of Forbiddance, Desistance, or "Don't Do" (Nahy)

 

The commands of "Forbiddance," "Desistance," or "Don't Do" (Nahy) have the meaning of "Ta'hreem" or "'Haram" in Islam.

 

One piece of evidence comes from the prohibition (Ta'hreem) of usury (Riba) in Al-Baqara (2: 275), then the "Don't do" (Nahy) in Al-Nissa (4: 171).

  

ۚ   ﴿ 2: 275 ﴾

ۚ   ﴿ 4: 161 ﴾

 

 

Another piece of evidence comes from the prohibition (Ta'hreem) of taking partners with God, in Al-A'araf (7: 33), then it is expressed as a command of "Don't do" or "Forbiddance" (Nahy) in Al-Ana'am (6: 56). 

 

A third piece of evidence comes from mentioning great sins (fawa'hish) and transgression (baghi) as prohibition (ta'hreem) in 7:33 and as a "Don't Do" command (Nahy) in 16: 90.

 

   ﴿ 7: 33 ﴾

 

ٰ ٰ ۚ  ( 16: 90).

 

ۚ ۙ   ﴿   56: 6 ﴾ .

 

 

There are nine specific commands using the Arabic root verb /naha/, do not do, or its derivatives. These are commanding Muslims not take usury, or earn money by fraud (Al-Nissa, 4: 161), or worship other than Allah (Al-Ana'am, 6: 56), or plot sin, aggression, and disobedience to the Messenger (Al-Mujadala, 58: 8), or take as guardians those who fight them over religion, get them out of their homelands, or support those who force them out (Al-Mumtahina, 60: 9).

 

God also commands Muslims not to commit great sins, denounced acts, and transgression (Al-Na'hl, 16: 90), which were mentioned also before as prohibitions ('haram).

 

Muslims are told about the punishment of Adam and his wife for disobeying God's command of not eating from the tree (Al-A'araf, 7: 22).

 

People of the Book (Christians in this case) are commanded to stop saying that God is three. He is only One God. As for the Messiah, Jesus Son of Maryam (Mary), he is God's Messenger, His Word and part of His Spirit thrown to Maryam (Al-Nissa, 4: 171).

 

Muslims are also commanded to enjoin what the Messenger of God had told them to do and abstain from doing what he told them not to do (Al'Hashr, 59: 7). This is a command for Muslims to follow the right and strongly narrated Hadiths of the Messenger of God, pbbuh.

 

ۚ  ﴿ 4: 161 ﴾.
 

ۚ ٰ ۖ ۖ ۚ ۚ ٰ ۖ ۘ ۗ ٰ   ﴿ 4: 171 ﴾.

 

ۚ ۙ   ﴿  6: 56).

 

ۚ ۖ   ﴿ 7: 22 ﴾.

 

ٰ ٰ ۚ  ( 16: 90).

 

ٰ ۚ ۖ ( 58: 8).

 

ۚ ۖ ﴿ 59: 7 ﴾

 

ٰ ۚ ٰ   ( 60: 9).

 

And (for) their taking of usury while they had been forbidden (nuhu) from it, and their consuming of the people's wealth unjustly. And we have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful punishment (Al-Nissa, 4: 161).

 

O People of the Book, do not commit excess in your religion or say about Allah except the truth. The Messiah, 'Eissa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), was but a Messenger of Allah and His Word which He directed to Maryam and a Soul from Him. So believe in Allah and His Messengers. And do not say, "Three." Desist (intahu), it is better for you (not to say that). Indeed, Allah is One God. Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the Earth. And sufficient is Allah as (your) Patron (Al-Nissa, 4: 171).

 

Say, "Indeed, I have been forbidden (nuheetu) to worship those you invoke besides Allah." Say, "I will not follow your desires, for I would then have gone astray, and I would not be of the guided" (Al-Ana'am, 6: 56).

 

Thus, he led them on with deception. And when they tasted (of) the tree, their shame (of nakedness) became manifest to them, and they began to cover themselves with leaves of Paradise. And their Lord called them, (saying): Did I not forbid you (anhakuma) from that tree and tell you that the Shaitan (Satan) is to you a clear enemy? (Al-A'araf, 7: 22).

 

Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids (yanha) great sins, denounced acts, and transgression. He admonishes you so that you may remember (Al-Na'hl, 16: 90).

 

Have you not considered those who were forbidden (nuhu) from private conversation, then they return to that which they were forbidden and converse among themselves about sin and aggression and disobedience to the Messenger? And when they come to you, they greet you with that (word) by which Allah does not greet you and say among themselves, "Why does Allah not punish us for what we say?" Sufficient for them is Hell, which they will burn in, and wretched is that destination (Al-Mujadala, 58: 8).

 

And whatever the Messenger has given you - take; and what he has forbidden you (nahakum) - refrain from. And avoid the wrath of Allah. Indeed, Allah is severe in punishment (Al-'Hashr, 59: 7).

 

Allah only forbids you (yanhakum) from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and collaborate in your expulsion - that you take them as your gurdians. And those who take them as guardians are the oppressors (Al-Mumta'hina, 60: 9).

 

IIII. Commands of Do, using the word "command" (Amr)

 

Believers are commanded to do things that are good for them in this life, which will also be rewarded in the hereafter. Here are twenty-one of them, from verses using the Arabic root verb /Amara/, to command, and its derivatives:  

 

And they ask you about menstruation. Say, "It is harm, so keep away from women (your wives) in menstruation. And do not approach them until they are purified (cleaned of it). And when they have purified, come to them from where Allah has commanded you (amarakum). Allah loves those (who are) repentant and loves those (who are) purified" (Al-Baqara, 2: 222). [4]

 

Allah commands you (ya-murukum) to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice. Excellent is that which Allah instructs you. Allah is Hearer and Seer (Al-Nissa, 4: 58).

 

I did not say to them except what You commanded me (amartani) with - to worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them as long as I was among them; (but) when You completed (my record on Earth), You were the Watcher over them, and You are, over everything, Witness (Al-Maeda, 5: 117). 

 

Say (O Muhammed), "(who) other than Allah (you want me) to take as a protector (guardian)? (He is the) Originator of the heavens and the Earth, and Who feeds (but) is not fed." Say, "I have been commanded (omirtu) to be the first (among you) who submit (to Allah, by being a Muslim) and (have been commanded): 'Do not be of the polytheists' " (Al-Ana'am, 6: 14).

 

 Say, the guidance of Allah is the (true) guidance, and we have been commanded (omirna) to submit (be Muslims) to the Lord of the worlds (Al-Ana'am, 6: 71).

 

 Say, (O Muhammad), "My Lord has commanded (amara) justice and that you maintain (prayers) at every place of prostration (mosque), and call Him, sincere to Him in religion." Just as He originated you, you will return (Al-A'araf, 7: 29).

 

They have taken their clergy and monks as lords besides Allah, and the Messiah, the Son of Maryam (Mary). And they were not commanded (omiru) except to worship one God; there is no deity except Him. Exalted is He above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Tawba, 9: 31).

 

 Say, (O Muhammad), "O people, if you are in doubt of my religion, then I do not worship those which you worship other than Allah; but I worship Allah, who receives you when you die. And I have been commanded (omirtu) to be of the believers (Younus, 10: 104).

 

 So straighten up (remain on the right course), as you have been commanded (omirta), and those with you who have repented, and do not transgress (do not be excessive). Indeed, He is Seeing of what you do (Hood, 11: 112).

 

You do not worship other than Him except names you have named, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. Legislation is not by any except  Allah. He has commanded (amara) that you worship none except Him. That is the correct religion, but most people do not know (Yousuf, 12: 40).

 

And those who join that which Allah has commanded (amara) it to be joined and fear their Lord and are afraid of the worst (at the time of) reckoning (Al-Ra'ad, 13: 21).

 

Say, "I have been commanded (omirtu) to worship Allah and not associate (anything) with Him. To Him I invite, and to Him is my return" (Al-Ra'ad, 13: 36).

 

 Allah commands (ya-muru) justice, and good conduct, and giving to relatives, and forbids great sins (fahsha), and denounced overt conducts (monker), and transgression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will remember (Al-Na'hl, 16: 90).

 

 And command (wa-mur) your family to (perform) prayer and be patient (in doing so). We do not ask you for provision, We provide for you, and the (best) outcome is for piety (Taha, 20: 132).

 

(Say, O Muhammed), "I have only been commanded (omirtu) to worship the Lord of this city, who made it sacred, and to whom (belong) all things. And I have been commanded (omirtu) to be of the Muslims (those who submit to Allah) (Al-Naml, 27: 91).

 

 Say, (O Muhammad), "Indeed, I have been commanded (omirtu) to worship Allah, (being) sincere to Him in religion (Al-Zumar, 39: 11). 

 

And I have been commanded (omirtu) to be the first (among you) of the Muslims" (Al-Zumar, 39: 12).

 

And I have been commanded (omirtu) to submit (be a Muslim) to the Lord of the Worlds (Ghafir, 40: 66).

 

So to that (religion of Allah) invite, (O Muhammad), and straighten up (remain on the right course), as you have been commanded (omirta), and do not follow their desires,  and say, "I have believed in what Allah has revealed of a Book (the Holy Qur'an), and I have been commanded (omirtu) to do justice among you (Al-Shoura, 42: 15).

 

And they were not commanded (omiru) except to worship Allah, (being) sincere to Him in religion, inclining to truth (hunafa), and to establish prayer and to give zakah. And that is the correct religion (Al-Bayina, 98: 5).

 

ۖ ۖ ٰ ۖ ۚ   ( 2: 222).

 

ٰ ۚ ۗ (  4: 58). 

 

ۚ ۖ ۚ ٰ   ( 5: 117).

 

ۗ ۖ   ( 6: 14).

 

ٰ ۖ   ( 6: 71).

 

ۖ ۚ   ( 7: 29).

 

ٰ ۖ ٰ ۚ   ( 9: 31).

 

ٰ ۖ  ( 10: 104).

 

ۚ ( 11: 112).

 

ۚ ۚ ۚ ٰ ٰ ( 12: 40).

 

 ( 13: 21).

 

ۚ   ( 13: 36).

 

ٰ ٰ ۚ  ( 16: 90).

 

ۖ ۖ ۗ ٰ ( 20: 132).

 

ٰ ۖ ( 27: 91).

 

( 39: 11).

 

( 39: 12).

 

( 40: 66).

 

ٰ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ  ( 42: 15).

 

ۚ ٰ  ( 98: 5).

 

 

======================================================================================================================================

 

Notes:

 

[1]  Some early Muslim scholars classified these commands (in the imperative verb form) by subject, as was the case with Imam Nawawi, who died in 671 Hijriya, 1272 AD (may Allah be pleased with him), in his famous book of "Riyadh Al-Sali'heen." His work, though, focused on 'Hadeeth, not on the Holy Quran.

 

Arabic Quran indexes, in paper or electronic forms, can help researchers search the Holy Quran by subject. However, such searches may not be exhaustive.

 

It seems that the only way to conduct an exhaustive search of God's commands, using the imperative verb form, by subject, is by searching the Holy Quran, verse by verse.

 

[2]  The following is the Arabic text of Al-Qurtubi's interpretation of Verse 13 of Surat Al-Shoora (Chapter 42), which explains the word, Shari'a, as summarized in English above.

 

:

 

: " " . : " " . . : " " ( 5: 48) . "" .

 

. : . . . . : . : . . " " "" " " "." : . : "" : . "" . "" : .

 

: : : " : ." . .

 

. . : .

 

. : " " . " " ( 48: 10).

 

. : . . . : . . " ( 13 (42)).

 

 

[3]  Verse 3: 130 of the Holy Quran defines usury (riba) as compound interests that leads to doubling a loan's principal. This was interpreted as exceeding 9% of interests by the Ottoman government, in 1887, and 7% by the current governments of Iran and Pakistan.

 

However, even with a lower interest rate, a loan is considered usurious (riba) if the compounded interests exceed doubling of the loan principal (Usury and Islamic Economics and Finance: A Different View By Hamed Al-Homoud Al-Ajlan. Arabic, pages 103-110).

 

[4]  In this verse (2: 222), men are commanded to come to women from where Allah has commanded them. While the verse does not state where that is, it refers to two previously mentioned verses in Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2 of the Holy Quran), which give a clarification.

 

Verse 2: 187 allows Muslims to have sexual activity during the nights of fasting.

 

Verse 2: 189 tells Muslim men to come to their homes from the front doors, not from the back doors.

 

Further, Verse 21 of Al-Room (Chapter 30) and Verse 6 of Al-Talaq (Chapter 65), refer to women as the homes or dwellings of men.

 

Thus, men are commanded to enter their homes (their women) from the front door (vaginal intercourse), not from the back door (anal intercourse), because this is as harmful as intercourse during menstruation.

 

*** *** ***

***

 

 

Introduction to Islamic Law (Shari'a)

 

 Part II:

 

The "No" Commands in the Holy Quran

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

Mu'harram 30th, 1433, December 25th, 2911

 

***

 

 

:

 

""

 

 

1433 - 2011

 

***

 

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

 

 

Introduction

 

Islamic Shari'a (Islamic Law) represents a major component of God's Message of Guidance to humanity, as revealed through His Books and taught by His Messengers, for thousands of years.

 

In fact, the entire religion of Islam is God's Shari'a or body of laws, which are intended to guide humans in how to live happily on Earth and be also rewarded with God's content in the Hereafter. Thus, those who look for understanding Shari'a can find it contained in the Islamic teachings, in the Holy Quran and the Sunna.

 

The Islamic Shari'a is an independent discipline in Islamic universities, in which students study its various aspects in variety of courses, including principles of Shari'a and its rules.

 

There is no claim here of introducing the Shari'a to readers, as an academic discipline. Rather, the main focus is on presenting a survey of the Shari'a principles and rules, as stated in the verses of the Holy Quran. Those who are interested in further discussions, rulings, and analyses can go to the works of Muslim scholars from the various schools of thought. 

 

This is a draft version of Part II of the sixth book about Islam, by this author. It aims at the clarification of the meaning of Shari'a and to introduce some of the main categories of its principles and rules, such as those found in the direct commands of prohibition and admonition (Ta'hreem and Nahy).

 

The seventh book is a continuation of the sixth book, but it contains Gods Commands of Justice and Righteousness, which are expressed in the imperative mood (verb form), and used as commands about human behaviors in various aspects of life. It has not been completed yet. [1]

 

While this author consulted with several translations of the Holy Quran available on www.tanzil.net, particularly that of the Sahih International, he is solely responsible for the translation of the meanings of the researched verses, in this and other books.

 

Commands of Don't Do, Using the Word "La" (No)

 

The two Arabic letters "L" and "a" may form the independent word "La," which means "No." When "La" precedes a verb, it functions as the command of "Don't Do," which is the focus of this article.

 

"La" was mentioned in the Holy Quran 6,465 times, in 3,553 verses, as an independent word and as a part of another word. The following is a list of "La" as a "Don't Do" command, using the search function of the Arabic text of the Holy Quran, at www.tanzil.net.

 

While this author consulted with several translations of the Holy Quran on the same website, tanzil.net, particularly that of the Sahih International, he is solely responsible for the translation of the meanings of the researched verses.

 

  ٰ ( 2: 35).

 

And do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers (Al-Baqara, 2: 35).

 

ۖ ( 2: 41).

 

And believe in what I have sent down confirming that which is [already] with you, and be not the first to disbelieve in it. And do not exchange My signs for a small price, and fear [only] Me (Al-Baqara, 2: 41).

 

  ( 2: 42).

 

And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know [it]  (Al-Baqara, 2: 41).

 

ٰ ٰ ۖ ۖ ۖ ( 2:  60).

 

And [recall] when Moses prayed for water for his people, so We said, "Strike with your staff the stone." And there gushed forth from it twelve springs, and every people knew its watering place. "Eat and drink from the provision of Allah, and do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption" (Al-Baqara, 2: 41).

 

( 2: 83).

 

And [recall] when We took the covenant from the Children of Israel, [enjoining upon them], "Do not worship except Allah (Al-Baqara, 2: 83).

( 2: 84).

 

And [recall] when We took your covenant, [saying], "Do not shed each other's blood nor evict one another from your homes." Then you acknowledged [this] while you were witnessing (Al-Baqara, 2: 84).

 

ۗ ( 2: 104).

 

O you who have believed, say not (to Allah 's Messenger), "Ra'ina" but say, "Undhurna" and listen. And for the disbelievers is a painful punishment (Al-Baqara, 2: 104).

 

In his interpretation of Verse 2: 104, Bin Katheer mentioned that the two words, "Ra'ina" and "Undhurna," have the same meaning, "look at us." But the first, "Ra'ina," was used sarcastically by Jews, to bother the Messenger of God. So, the believers are told to avoid using that abused word and use another one instead. The general meaning is that believers should abstain from being sarcastic, teasing, or putting people down, unlike the disbelievers.

 

  ۖ ( 2: 147).

 

The truth is from your Lord, so do not be among the doubters (Al-Baqara, 2: 147).

 

  ( 2: 150).   

 

... except for those of them who oppress; so do not fear them and fear Me. And [it is] so I may complete My favor upon you and that you may be guided (Al-Baqara, 2: 150).

 

   ( 2: 152).   

 

So remember Me; I will remember you. And be grateful to Me and do not deny Me (Al-Baqara, 2: 152).

 

  ۚ ٰ ( 2: 154).

 

And do not say about those who are killed in the way of Allah, "They are dead." Rather, they are alive, but you perceive [it] not (Al-Baqara, 2: 154).

 

  ۗ ۗ ٰ ( 2: 187).

 

 And do not have sexual activity with them (your wives) as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah, so do not approach them. Thus does Allah make clear His ordinances to the people that they may become righteous (Al-Baqara, 2: 187).

 

  ( 2: 188).

 

And do not consume one another's wealth unjustly or send it [in bribery] to the rulers in order that [they might aid] you [to] consume a portion of the wealth of the people in sin, while you know [it is unlawful] (Al-Baqara, 2: 188).

 

  ۚ ( 2: 190).

 

Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors  (Al-Baqara, 2: 190).

 

  ٰ ۖ  ( 2: 191).

 

And do not fight them at al-Masjid al- Haram until they fight you there (Al-Baqara, 2: 191).

 

  ( 2: 193).

 

... then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors (Al-Baqara, 2: 193).

 

    ( 2: 195).

 

and do not throw [yourselves] with your [own] hands into destruction (Al-Baqara, 2: 195).

 

  ٰ ۚ  ( 2: 196).

 

And do not shave your heads (during pilgrimage) until the sacrificial animal has reached its place of slaughter (Al-Baqara, 2: 196).

 

  ۗ   ( 2: 197).

 

... there is no sexual activity, and no disobedience, and no disputing during pilgrimage (Al-Baqara, 2: 197).

 

  ۚ  ( 2: 208).

 

O you who have believed, enter into Islam completely [and perfectly] and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy (Al-Baqara, 2: 208).

 

  ٰ ۚ ۗ ٰ ۚ ۗ   ( 2: 221).

 

And do not marry polytheistic women until they believe. And a believing slave woman is better than a polytheist, even though she might please you. And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you (Al-Baqara, 2: 221).

 

  ۖ ۖ ٰ ۖ ۚ  ( 2: 222).

 

And they ask you about menstruation. Say, "It is harm, so keep away from wives during menstruation. And do not approach them until they are pure. And when they have purified themselves, then come to them from where Allah has ordained for you. Indeed, Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves (Al-Baqara, 2: 222).

 

  ۗ   ( 2: 224).

 

And do not make [your oath by] Allah an excuse against being righteous and fearing Allah and making peace among people. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing (Al-Baqara, 2: 224).

 

  ۚ   ( 2: 228).  

 

Divorced women remain in waiting for three periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs  (Al-Baqara, 2: 228).

 

  ۖ ۗ ۖ ۗ ۚ ٰ ( 2: 229).

 

Divorce is twice. Then, either keep [her] in an acceptable manner or release [her] with good treatment. And it is not lawful for you to take anything of what you have given them unless both fear that they will not be able to keep [within] the limits of Allah. But if you fear that they will not keep [within] the limits of Allah, then there is no blame upon either of them concerning that by which she ransoms herself. These are the limits of Allah, so do not transgress them. And whoever transgresses the limits of Allah - it is those who are the wrongdoers (Al-Baqara, 2: 229).

  ٰ ۗ  ( 2: 230).

  

And if he has divorced her [for the third time], then she is not lawful to him afterward until [after] she marries a husband other than him (Al-Baqara, 2: 230).

 

  ۚ ۚ ٰ ۚ   ۚ  ( 2: 231).

 

And when you divorce women and they have [nearly] fulfilled their term, either retain them according to acceptable terms or release them according to acceptable terms, and do not keep them, intending harm, to transgress [against them]. And whoever does that has certainly wronged himself. And do not take the verses of Allah in jest (Al-Baqara, 2: 231).

 

ۗ  ( 2: 232).

 

And when you divorce women and they have fulfilled their term, do not prevent them from remarrying their [former] husbands if they agree among themselves on an acceptable basis (Al-Baqara, 2: 232).

 

  ۚ   ( 2: 233).

 

 No person is charged with more than his/her capacity (Al-Baqara, 2: 233).

 

  ۚ ٰ ۚ ٰ ۚ ۚ   ( 2: 235).

 

There is no blame upon you for that to which you [indirectly] allude concerning a proposal to women or for what you conceal within yourselves. Allah knows that you will have them in mind. But do not meet them secretly except for saying a proper saying. And do not determine to undertake a marriage contract until the decreed period reaches its end. And know that Allah knows what is within yourselves, so beware of Him. And know that Allah is Forgiving and Forbearing (Al-Baqara, 2: 235).

 

  ۚ ٰ ۚ ۚ  ( 2: 237).

 

And if you divorce them before you have touched them and you have already specified for them an obligation, then [give] half of what you specified - unless they forego the right or the one in whose hand is the marriage contract foregoes it. And to forego it is nearer to righteousness. And do not forget graciousness between you (Al-Baqara, 2: 237).

 

  ۖ ۚ ٰ ۗ   ( 2: 256).

 

There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing (Al-Baqara, 2: 256).

 

  ٰ ۖ  ( 2: 264).

 

O you who have believed, do not invalidate your charities with reminders or injury as does one who spends his wealth [only] to be seen by the people and does not believe in Allah and the Last Day (Al-Baqara, 2: 264).

 

  ۖ ۚ ( 2: 267).

 

O you who have believed, spend from the good things which you have earned and from that which We have produced for you from the earth. And do not aim toward the defective there from, spending [from that] while you would not take it [yourself] except with closed eyes. And know that Allah is Free of need and Praiseworthy (Al-Baqara, 2: 267).

 

  ٰ ۚ ۚ ۚ ۚ  ( 2: 282).

 

O you who have believed, when you contract a debt for a specified term, write it down. And let a scribe write [it] between you in justice. Let no scribe refuse to write as Allah has taught him. So let him write and let the one who has the obligation dictate. And let him fear Allah, his Lord, and not leave anything out of it (Al-Baqara, 2: 282).

 

  ۚ ٰ ۚ ٰ ٰ ۖ ۗ ۚ ۚ ۗ  ( 2: 282).

 

 And let not the witnesses refuse when they are called upon. And do not be [too] weary to write it, whether it is small or large, for its [specified] term. That is more just in the sight of Allah and stronger as evidence and more likely to prevent doubt between you, except when it is an immediate transaction which you conduct among yourselves. For [then] there is no blame upon you if you do not write it. And take witnesses when you conclude a contract. Let neither scribe be harmed nor a witness. For if you do so, indeed, it is [grave] disobedience in you (Al-Baqara, 2: 282).

 

  ۖ ٰ ۗ  ( 3: 28).

 

Let not believers take disbelievers as allies rather than believers. And whoever [of you] does that has nothing with Allah, except when taking precaution against them in prudence (Al-'Imran, 2: 282).

 

  ( 3: 60).

 

The truth is from your Lord, so do not be among the doubters (Al-'Imran, 3: 60).

 

  ٰ ۚ ( 3: 64).

 

Say, "O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable between us and you - that we will not worship except Allah and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allah." But if they turn away, then say, "Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Him] (Al-'Imran, 3: 64).

 

   ( 3: 73).

 

And do not trust except those who follow your religion (Al-'Imran, 3: 73).

 

  ٰ ٰ ٰ   ( 3: 84).

 

Say, "We have believed in Allah and in what was revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Descendants, and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [submitting] to Him (Al-'Imran, 3: 84).

 

   ( 3: 102).

 

O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him] (Al-'Imran, 3: 102).

 

  ۚ  ( 3: 103).

 

And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together and do not become divided (Al-'Imran, 3: 103).

 

  ۚ  ( 3: 105).

 

And do not be like the ones who became divided and differed after the clear proofs had come to them. And those will have a great punishment (Al-'Imran, 3: 105).

 

  ( 3: 118).

 

O you who have believed, do not take as intimates those other than yourselves, for they will not spare you [any] ruin (Al-'Imran, 3: 118).

 

  ۖ  ( 3: 130).

 

O you who have believed, do not consume usury, doubled and multiplied, but fear Allah that you may be successful (Al-'Imran, 3: 130).

 

  ( 3: 139).

 

So do not weaken and do not sadden, and you will be superior if you are [true] believers (Al-'Imran, 3: 139).

 

  ۚ ( 3: 169).

 

And do not count those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision (Al-'Imran, 3: 169).

 

  ٰ  ( 3: 175).

 

That is only Satan who frightens [you] of his supporters. So do not fear them, but fear Me, if you are (indeed) believers (Al-'Imran, 3: 175).

 

  ۚ ۗ  ( 3: 176).

 

And (O Muhammed) do not be saddened by those who hasten into disbelief. Indeed, they will never harm Allah at all (Al-'Imran, 3: 176).

 

  ۖ  ( 3: 187).

 

And [mention, O Muhammad], when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture, [saying], "You must make it clear to the people and not conceal it." But they threw it away behind their backs and exchanged it for a small price. And wretched is that which they purchased (Al-'Imran, 3: 187).

 

  ٰ ۖ ۖ ٰ ۚ  ( 4: 2).

 

And give to the orphans their money (wealth) and do not substitute the defective [of your own] for the good [of theirs]. And do not consume (take) their money into your own. Indeed, that is ever a great sin (Al-Nissa, 4: 2).

 

   ( 4: 5).

 

And do not give the weak-minded your money (wealth), which Allah has made a means of sustenance for you, but provide for them with it and clothe them and speak to them words of appropriate kindness (Al-Nissa, 4: 5).

 

  ٰ ٰ ۖ ۚ  ( 4: 6).

 

And test the orphans (in their abilities) until they reach marriageable age. Then if you perceive in them sound judgment, release their money (wealth) to them. And do not consume it excessively and quickly, (anticipating) that they will grow up (Al-Nissa, 4: 6).

 

  ۖ ۚ ۚ ٰ  ( 4: 19).

 

O you who have believed, it is not lawful for you to inherit women by compulsion. And do not make difficulties for them in order to take [back] part of what you gave them unless they commit a clear immorality. And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them - perhaps you dislike a thing and Allah makes therein much good (Al-Nissa, 4: 19).

 

ۚ   ( 4: 20).

 

And if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount [in gifts], do not take anything (back) from it . Would you take it in injustice and manifest sin? (Al-Nissa, 4: 20).

 

ۚ  ( 4: 22).

 

And do not marry those [women] whom your fathers married, except what has already occurred. Indeed, it was an immorality and hateful [to Allah] and was evil as a way (Al-Nissa, 4: 22).

 

  ۚ ۚ  ( 4: 29).  

 

O you who have believed, do not consume one another's wealth unjustly but only [in lawful] business by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful (Al-Nissa, 4: 29).

 

  ٰ ۚ  ( 4: 32).

 

And do not wish for that by which Allah has made some of you exceed others (Al-Nissa, 4: 32).

 

  ۗ   ( 4: 34).

 

if they (your women) obey you, seek no means against them (Al-Nissa, 4: 34).

 

  ۖ  ( 4: 37).

 

Worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him (Al-Nissa, 4: 37).

 

  ٰ ٰ ٰ ۚ  ( 4: 43).

 

O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying nor (approach prayer) after sexual activity, except when you are traveling, until you have washed (your whole body) (Al-Nissa, 4: 43).  

 

  ۖ ٰ ۚ ۖ  ( 4: 89).  

 

They (the Makkah hypocrites) wish you would disbelieve as they disbelieved so you would be alike. So do not take from among them allies until they emigrate for the cause of Allah. But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them and take not from among them any ally or helper  (Al-Nissa, 4: 89). 

 

  ٰ  ( 4: 94).

 

O you who have believed, when you go forth [to fight] in the cause of Allah, investigate; and do not say to one who greets you with peace "You are not a believer," aspiring for the goods of worldly life (Al-Nissa, 4: 94). 

 

  ۖ ۖ ۗ  ( 4: 104).

 

And do not weaken in pursuit of the enemy. If you are suffering, they are suffering as you are suffering, but you expect from Allah that which they do not expect (Al-Nissa, 4: 104). 

 

  ۚ  ( 4: 105).

 

We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth so you may judge between the people by that which Allah has shown you. And do not be for the deceitful an advocate  (Al-Nissa, 4: 105). 

 

  ۚ   ( 4: 107).

 

And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Indeed, Allah does not love the one who is a sinful deceiver (Al-Nissa, 4: 107). 

 

  ۖ ۚ   ( 4: 129).

 

And you will never be able to be equal [in feeling] between women (wives), even if you should strive [to do so]. So do not incline completely [toward one] and leave another hanging  (Al-Nissa, 4: 129). 

 

  ٰ ۚ ٰ ۖ ٰ ۚ  ( 4: 135).

 

O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm in justice, witnesses for Allah, even (if it is) against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah is protector of both. So do not follow (your personal) inclination, lest you not be just. And if you distort (your testimony) or refuse (to give it), then indeed Allah is an Expert about what you do (Al-Nissa, 4: 135). 

 

  ٰ ۚ ۗ  ( 4: 140).

 

And it has already come down to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah, rejected and ridiculed, do not sit with them until they enter into another conversation. You would then be like them. Indeed Allah will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in Hell all together (Al-Nissa, 4: 140). 

 

  ۚ  ( 4: 144).

 

O you who have believed, do not take the disbelievers as allies instead of the believers (Al-Nissa, 4: 144). 

 

     ( 4: 154).  

 

And for their covenant, We raised over them the Tour (Mount Sinai); and We said to them: "Enter the gate after prostrating (in gratitude); and We said to them, "Do not transgress on the Sabbath," and We took from them a solemn covenant  (Al-Nissa, 4: 154). 

 

  ۚ ٰ ۖ ۖ ۚ ۚ ٰ ۖ ۘ ۗ ٰ   ( 4: 171).  

 

O People of the Book, do not commit excess in your religion and do not say about Allah except the truth. The Messiah, 'Eissa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), was but a Messenger of Allah and His Word which He directed to Maryam and a Soul from Him. So believe in Allah and His Messengers. And do not say, "Three." Desist, it is better for you (not to say that). Allah is One God. He is Exalted above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the Earth. And sufficient is Allah as (your) Patron (Al-Nissa, 4: 171).

 

  ۚ ۚ ۘ ٰ ۖ ۚ ۖ  ( 5: 2).

 

O you who have believed, do not violate the sanctity of the rites of Allah nor the sacred month nor the sacrificial animals nor garlanding (them) nor those coming to the Sacred House seeking bounty from their Lord and (His) content. But when you complete the pilgrimage rituals, then you (may) hunt. And do not let the hatred of a people who obstructed you from (coming to) Al-Masjid Al-'Haram lead you to transgress. And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in punishment (Al-Maeda, 5: 2).

 

  ۚ ۚ  ( 5: 3).

 

This day, those who reject faith have given up all hope of your religion. So, do not fear them and fear Me. This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion (Al-Maeda, 5: 3).

 

  ۗ  ( 5: 5). 

 

And (lawful in marriage are) chaste women from among the believers and chaste women from among those who were given the Book before you. When you have given them their due compensation, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse, nor taking (them as) secret lovers (Al-Maeda, 5: 5).

 

  ۖ ٰ ۚ ٰ ۖ ۚ  ( 5: 8). 

 

O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just, that is nearer to righteousness (Al-Maeda, 5: 8).

 

  ۛ  ( 5: 41). 

 

O Messenger, do not let those who hasten into disbelief grieve (sadden) you, (they are among) those who say, "We believe" with their mouths, but their hearts do not believe (Al-Maeda, 5: 41).

 

  ۚ ۚ ۚ ٰ  ( 5: 44). 

 

We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to Allah] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allah, and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the disbelievers (Al-Maeda, 5: 44).

 

  ۖ ۖ ۚ  ( 5: 48).  

 

And We have revealed to you, (O Muhammad), the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations away from what has come to you of the truth (Al-Maeda, 5: 48).

 

  ۖ ۗ  ( 5: 49). 

 

And judge, (O Muhammad), between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations and beware of them, lest they tempt you away from some of what Allah has revealed to you. And if they turn away - then know that Allah only intends to afflict them with some of their sins. And indeed, many among the people are defiantly disobedient (Al-Maeda, 5: 49).

 

  ٰ ۘ ۚ ۗ  ( 5: 51). 

 

O you who have believed, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. They are allies of one-another. And whoever is an ally to them among you, then he is (one) of them. Allah guides not the oppressors (wrongdoers) (Al-Maeda, 5: 51).

 

  ۚ  ( 5: 57). 

 

O you who have believed, do not take as allies those who have taken your religion in ridicule and amusement from among those who were given the Book before you and the disbelievers  (Al-Maeda, 5: 57).

 

  ٰ ٰ ۗ ۖ  ( 5: 68). 

 

Say, "O People of the Book (Scriptures), you are (standing) on nothing until you uphold the Towrah (Torah), the Engel (Gospel), and what has been revealed to you from your Lord." And that which has been revealed to you from your Lord will increase many of them in transgression and disbelief. So do not grieve over the disbelieving people (Al-Maeda, 5: 68).

 

    ( 5: 77). 

   

Say, "O People of the Book (Scriptures), do not exaggerate (be extreme) in your religion beyond the truth, and do not follow the inclinations (desires) of a people who had gone stray (were lost) before and misled many and have strayed from the straightforwardness of the way" (Al-Maeda, 5: 77).

 

   

  ۚ  ( 5: 87). 

 

O you who have believed, do not prohibit the good things which Allah has allowed (permitted) to you and do not transgress. Allah does not like transgressors (Al-Maeda, 5: 87).

 

  ۚ  ( 5: 95). 

 

O you who have believed, do not kill game while you are in the state of ihram (pilgrimage) (Al-Maeda, 5: 95).

 

  ۚ ٰ ۚ   ( 6: 35).  

 

And if their evasion is difficult for you, then if you are able to seek a tunnel into the earth or a stairway into the sky to bring them a sign, (then do so). But if Allah had willed, He would have gathered them upon guidance. So, do not be of the ignorant (Al-Ana'am, 6: 35).

 

ۖ   ( 6: 52).

 

And do not send away those who call upon their Lord morning and afternoon, seeking His Face (content). Not upon you is anything of their account and not upon them is anything of your account. So were you to send them away, you would (then) be of the oppressors (wrongdoers) (Al-Ana'am, 6: 52).

 

  ٰ ۚ ٰ  ( 6: 68).

 

And when you see those who engage in (offensive) discourse concerning Our verses, then turn away from them until they enter into another conversation. And if the Shaitan (Satan) should cause you to forget, then do not remain, after remembering, with the oppressive (wrongdoing) people (Al-Ana'am, 6: 68).

 

  ۗ  ( 6: 108).

 

And do not insult those they invoke other than Allah, lest they insult Allah in enmity without knowledge (Al-Ana'am, 6: 108).

 

  ۗ ٰ ۖ  ( 6: 121).

 

And do not eat of that upon which the name of Allah has not been mentioned, for indeed, it is a grave disobedience. And indeed, the devils inspire their (human) allies to argue with you. And if you were to obey them, then, you would be associating others (with God) (Al-Ana'am, 6: 121).

 

  ۖ ۚ  ( 6: 141).

 

Eat of its fruit when it yields, and give its due (Zakah) on the day of its harvest. And do not commit extravagance (excess). He (Allah) does not like those who are extravagant (excessive)  (Al-Ana'am, 6: 141).

 

  ۚ   ( 6: 142).

 

Eat of what Allah has provided for you and do not follow the footsteps of the Shaitan (Satan). He is to you a clear enemy (Al-Ana'am, 6: 142).

 

  ٰ ۖ ۚ   ( 6: 150).

 

Say, (O Muhammad), "Bring forward your witnesses who will testify that Allah has prohibited this." And if they testify, do not testify with them. And do not follow the desires of those who deny Our verses and those who do not believe in the Hereafter, while they equate (others) with their Lord (Al-Ana'am, 6: 150).

 

   

ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۚ ٰ ( 6: 151).

 

ٰ ۖ  ( 6: 152).

 

Say, "Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited ('harrama) to you: That you do not associate anything with Him, and to (give) parents good treatment, and not to kill your children out of poverty; We will provide for you and them. And do not approach great sins - what is apparent of them and what is concealed. And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden ('harrama) except by a (legal) right. That is what He has instructed you that you may reason"  (Al-Ana'am, 151).

 

And do not approach the orphan's property except in a way that is best until he reaches maturity  (Al-Ana'am, 152).

 

 

  ٰ ۖ ۚ ٰ   ( 6: 153).

 

And, this is My path, which is straight, so follow it; and do not follow (other) ways, for you will be separated from His way. This has He instructed you that you may become righteous (Al-Ana'am, 153).

 

  ٰ    ( 7: 2).

 

(This is) a Book revealed to you, (O Muhammad) - so let there not be in your chest distress therefrom - that you may warn thereby and as a reminder to the believers (Al-A'araf, 7: 2).

 

  ۗ  ( 7: 3).

 

Follow, [O mankind], what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow other than Him any allies. Little do you remember (Al-A'araf, 7: 3).

 

  ٰ  ( 7: 19).

 

And "O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat from wherever you will but do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers" (Al-A'araf, 7: 19).

 

ۗ ۗ  ( 7: 27).

 

O children of Adam, let not the Shaitan (Satan) tempt you as he removed your parents from Paradise, stripping them of their clothing to show them their private parts. Indeed, he sees you, he and his tribe, from where you do not see them. Indeed, We have made the devils allies to those who do not believe (Al-A'araf, 7: 27).

 

  ۚ  ( 7: 31).

 

O children of Adam, take your adornment at every masjid, and eat and drink, but do not be excessive. Indeed, He does not like those who are excessive (Al-A'araf, 7: 31).

 

  ٰ ۖ  ( 7: 42).

 

But those who believed and did righteous deeds - We do not charge a soul except (within) its capacity. Those are the companions of Paradise; they will abide therein eternally (Al-A'araf, 7: 42).

 

  ۚ  ( 7: 56).

 

And do not corrupt on the Earth after its reformation. And invoke Him in fear and aspiration. Indeed, the mercy of Allah is near to the doers of good (Al-A'araf, 7: 56).

 

 ٰ ۗ ٰ ۖ ۖ ٰ ۖ ۖ   ( 7: 73).

 

ۖ   ( 7: 74).

 

And to the Thamud [We sent] their brother Salih. He said, "O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. There has come to you clear evidence from your Lord. This is the she-camel of Allah [sent] to you as a sign. So leave her to eat within Allah 's land and do not touch her with harm, lest there seize you a painful punishment (Al-A'araf, 7: 73).

 

And remember when He made you successors after the 'Aad and settled you in the land, [and] you take for yourselves palaces from its plains and carve from the mountains, homes. Then remember the favors of Allah and do not commit abuse on the Earth, spreading corruption (Al-A'araf, 7: 74).

 

 ٰ ۗ ٰ ۖ ۖ ۚ ٰ  ( 7: 85).

 

  ۚ ۖ ( 7: 86).

 

And to [the people of] Madyan [We sent] their brother Shu'ayb. He said, "O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. There has come to you clear evidence from your Lord. So fulfill the measure and weight and do not deprive people of their due and do not corruption on the earth after its reformation. That is better for you, if you should be believers (Al-A'araf, 7: 85).

 

And do not sit on every path, threatening and averting from the way of Allah those who believe in Him, seeking to make it [seem] deviant. And remember when you were few and He increased you. And see how was the end of the corrupters (Al-A'araf, 7: 86).

 

  ٰ ۚ ٰ  ( 7: 142).

 

And We made an appointment with Moses for thirty nights and perfected them by [the addition of] ten; so the term of his Lord was completed as forty nights. And Moses said to his brother Aaron, "Take my place among my people, do right [by them], and do not follow the way of the corrupters" (Al-A'araf, 7: 142).

 

   ( 7: 205).

 

And remember your Lord within yourself in humility and in fear without being apparent in speech - in the mornings and the evenings. And do not be among the heedless (Al-A'araf, 7: 205).

 

  ( 8: 15).

 

ٰ ۖ  ( 8: 15).

 

O you who have believed, when you meet those who disbelieve advancing (for battle), do not turn your backs to them (do not flee the battle) (Al-Anfal, 8: 15).

 

And whoever turns his back to them (on such a day), unless swerving (as a tactic) for war or joining (another) company, has certainly returned with anger (upon him) from Allah, and his refuge is Hell - and wretched is the destination (Al-Anfal, 8: 16).

 

  ( 8: 20).

 

 ( 8: 21).

 

O you who have believed, obey Allah and His Messenger and do not turn away from him while you hear (his teaching)  (Al-Anfal, 8: 20).

 

And do not be like those who say, "We have heard," while they do not hear (Al-Anfal, 8: 21).

 

  ۖ ۚ   ( 8: 46).

 

  ۚ  ( 8: 47).

 

And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute, as it causes you to fail and your strength would depart; and be patient. Indeed, Allah is with the patient (Al-Anfal, 8: 46).

 

And do not be like those who came forth from their homes insolently and to be seen by people and avert [them] from the way of Allah. And Allah is encompassing of what they do (Al-Anfal, 8: 47).

 

ۚ ٰ   ( 9: 23). 

 

O you who have believed, do not take your fathers or your brothers as allies if they have preferred disbelief over belief. And whoever does so among you - then it is those who are the wrongdoers  (Al-Tawba, 9: 23).

 

ٰ ۚ ۚ  ( 9: 28). 

 

O you who have believed, the polytheists are unclean. So, do not let them approach Al-Masjid Al-Haram (The House of Allah in Makkah) after this, their (final) year. And if you fear privation, Allah will enrich you from His bounty if He wills. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Wise (Al-Tawba, 9: 28).

 

  ۚ ٰ ۚ ۚ ۚ    ( 9: 36). 

 

Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not transgress on yourselves (on each other) during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him] (Al-Tawba, 9: 36).

 

  ۚ  ( 9: 55).

 

So do not be impressed by their (the disbelievers) wealth or their children. Allah only wants to punish them through these (wealth and children) in the lower life (of this world) and that their souls should depart (at death) while they are disbelievers (Al-Tawba, 9: 55).

 

  ۚ  ( 9: 85).

 

And do not be impressed by their (the disbelievers) wealth or their children. Allah only wants to punish them through these (wealth and children) in the lower life (of this world) and that their souls should depart (at death) while they are disbelievers (Al-Tawba, 9: 85).

 

  ٰ ٰ ۖ  ( 9: 84).

 

And do not pray (the funeral prayer, O Muhammad), over any of them who has died - ever - nor stand at his grave. Indeed, they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger and died while they were defiantly disobedient (Al-Tawba, 9: 84).

 

  ۚ ٰ ۚ ۚ  ( 9: 108).

 

Do not stand [for prayer] within it - ever. A mosque founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy for you to stand in. Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves (Al-Tawba, 9: 108).

 

  ۚ   ( 9: 120).

 

It was not (proper) for the people of Madinah and those surrounding them of the Bedouins (desert dwellers) that they remain behind after (the departure of) the Messenger of Allah, nor that they prefer themselves over his self (Al-Tawba, 9: 120).

 

  ۘ ۚ  ( 10: 65).

 

And do not let their speech grieve (sadden) you. Indeed, honor [due to power] belongs to Allah entirely. He is the Hearing, the Knowing (Younus, 10: 65).

 

   ( 10: 89).

 

(Allah) said (Moussa and his brother Haroun), "Your supplication has been answered." So remain on a right course and do not follow the way of those who do not know" (Younus, 10: 89).

 

ۚ ( 10: 94).

 

( 10: 95).

 

So if you are in doubt, (O Muhammad), about that which We have revealed to you, then ask those who have been reading the Scripture before you. The truth has certainly come to you from your Lord, so do not be among the doubters (Younus, 10: 94).

 

And do not be of those who belie (deny) the signs of Allah and (thus you will) be among the losers (Younus, 10: 95).

 

    ( 10: 105).

 

  ۖ  ( 10: 106).

 

And direct your face toward the religion, inclining to truth, and do not be of those who associate others with Allah (Younus, 10: 105).

 

And do not invoke besides Allah that which neither benefits you nor harms you, for if you did, then indeed you would be of the self-oppressors (wrongdoers)  (Younus, 10: 106).

 

  ۚ ٰ  ( 11: 17).

 

So, do not be in doubt about it. Indeed, it is the truth from your Lord, but most of the people do not believe (Hood, 11: 17).

 

  ٰ   ( 11: 36).

 

And it was revealed to Noah that, "No one will believe from your people except those who have already believed. So, do not be distressed by what they have been doing (Hood, 11: 36).

 

  ۚ  ( 11: 37).

 

And construct the ship under Our observation and Our inspiration and do not address Me concerning those who have have oppressed themselves. They are (going to be) drowned (Hood, 11: 37).

 

  ۖ ۖ ۖ  ( 11: 46).

 

He (Allah) said, "O Noo'h (Noah), he is not of your family. He is (one whose) work was not righteous. So, do not ask Me for that about which you have no knowledge. I advise you, so you may not be among the ignorant" (Hood, 11: 46).

 

  ٰ  ( 11: 52).

 

And O my people, ask forgiveness of your Lord and then repent to Him. He will send (rain from) the sky upon you in showers and increase you in strength (added) to your strength. And do not turn away, (as) criminals." (Hood, 11: 52).

 

  ٰ    ( 11: 64).

 

And O my people, this is the she-camel of Allah, (sent) to you as a a sign. So, let her feed upon Allah's earth and do not touch her with harm, or you will be taken by an impending punishment (Hood, 11: 64).

 

  ٰ ۚ ٰ ۖ ۚ   ( 11: 84).

 

  ۖ  ( 11: 85).

 

And to Madyan (We sent) their brother Shu'ayb. He said, "O my people, worship Allah; you have no other deity than Him. And do not decrease from the measure and the scale. I see you in prosperity but I fear for you the punishment of an All-Encompassing Day  (Hood, 11: 84).

 

And O my people, give full measure and weight in justice and do not deprive people of their due and do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption  (Hood, 11: 85).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-------------------------------------

 

Notes:

 

[1]  Some early Muslim scholars classified these commands (in the imperative verb form) by subject, as was the case with Imam Nawawi (may Allah be pleased with him, he died in 671 Hijria, 1272 Gregorian) in his famous book of "Riyadh Al-Saliheen." His work, though, focused on Hadith, not on the Holy Quran.

 

Arabic Quran indexes, in paper or electronic forms, can help researchers search the Holy Quran by subject. However, such searches may not be exhaustive.

 

It seems that the only way to conduct an exhaustive search of God's commands, using the imperative verb form, by subject, is by searching the Holy Quran, verse by verse.

 

 

[2]  The following is the Arabic text of Al-Qurtubi's interpretation of Verse 13 of Surat Al-Shoura (Chapter 42), which explains the word, Shari'a. It summarized in English above.

 

:

 

: " " ; : " " , , . , ; : " " [ : 48 ] . " " .

 

. : . . . . : , : . . " " " " , , " " . : , . : " " ; : . " " .

 

" " ; : , . : : : ( . .. ) , ; , , , .

 

, , - - , ; ; , , , , , , , , .

 

, ; : " " ; ; ; " " [ : 10] .

 

. . : , ; , . : . : . . .

 

 

[3] Verse 3: 130 of the Holy Quran defines usury (riba) as compound interests that leads to doubling a loan's principal. This was interpreted as exceeding 9% of interests by the Ottoman government, in 1887, and 7% by the current governments of Iran and Pakistan. However, even with a lower interest rate, a loan is considered usurious (riba) if the compounded interests exceed doubling of the loan principal (Usury and Islamic Economics and Finance: A Different View By 'Hamid Al-'Homoud Al-'Ajlan. Arabic, pages 103-110).

 

[4]  In this verse (2: 222), men are commanded to come to women from where Allah has commanded them. While the verse does not state where that is, it refers to two previously mentioned verses in Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2 of the Holy Quran), which give a clarification.

 

Verse 2: 187 allows Muslims to have sexual activity during the nights of fasting.

 

Verse 2: 189 tells Muslim men to come to their homes from the front doors, not from the back doors.

 

Further, Verse 21 of Al-Room (Chapter 30) and Verse 6 of Al-Talaq (Chapter 65), refer to women as the homes or dwellings of men.

 

Thus, men are commanded to enter their homes (their women) from the front door (vaginal intercourse), not from the back door (anal intercourse), because this is as harmful as intercourse during menstruation.

 

=======================================================================================================================================

 

About the Author and the Book:

 

* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the United States since 1986.


The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from www.tanzil.net.

 

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.  

 

  ( 61: 8).   

 

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8). 

 

 

Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent the Dalton Islamic Center

 

editor@aljazeerah.info